Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919)
French physician and parasitologist, born on Feb. 27, 1857 in Saint-Christophe (Indre-et-Loire) ; his father was a poet and author.
1875-1877 Enrollment in medical training at the Paris Faculty of Medicine ; became assistant to Charles Robin at the laboratory of zoological histology, Paris.
1876-1900 With others, founded the Société Zoologique de France, of which he became the Secretary-General.
1877-1878 Spent one year in Austria and Germany : trained in embryology at Vienna, anatomy at Leipzig and zoology at Bonn.
1878-1883 Became assistant to Paul Bert at the laboratory of physiology in the Sorbonne University, Paris.
1878 Taught natural history at the Lycées Saint-Louis and Louis-le-Grand, Paris.
1880 Thesis defense for medical doctorate : his doctoral dissertation topic was about the use of nitrous oxide as an anesthetic agent, according to the method of Professor Paul Bert ("De l'anesthésie par le protoxyde d'azote d'après la méthode du professeur Paul Bert").
1883-1897 Became Associate Professor at the Paris Faculty of Medicine, and started the first courses of parasitology that were delivered in France.
1883-1892 Published a treatise on medical zoology in two volumes (Traité de zoologie médical).
1884 Gave instruction at the Ecole d'anthropologie.
1884 Became a member of the French Society of biology ( Société de biologie ).
1885 Published Eléments de zoologie (written with Paul Bert).
1889 With A. Milne-Edwards, organized the International Congresses of Zoology (three times a year), in which he took an active part, especially in establishing the rules of zoological nomenclature that have since been widely adopted.
1894 Became a member of the French Academy of Medicine ; was Annual Secretary from 1912 until his death.
1896 Attended the microbiology course at the Institut Pasteur (cours de microbiologie).
1897 Elected full Professor of medical zoology, the title of this chair being changed nine years later to that of parasitology at his own request ; created a museum of parasitology, donating materials from his own collections ; participated in the debates about the French education reform.
1898 Founded the quarterly journal Archives de Parasitologie that he edited and owned ; was made president of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
1902 The Institut de Médecine Coloniale, with its hospital, was inaugurated, whose foundation was brought about by R. Blanchard, with the aid of funds supplied by the Association des Dames Françaises ; the Institute organized the first French mission on sleeping sickness in Africa ( E. Brumpt 's expedition, 1903).
With others, founded the Société française d'Histoire Médicale of which he was president during the first three years.
1905 Published Histoire naturelle et médicale des moustiques.
1909 Became a member of the Société de pathologie exotique (SPE).
1914-1918 During First World War, gave devoted service in promoting more particularly the work of the Association des Dames Françaises ; became a member of the Malaria Control Commission in the Ministry of War, of which A. Laveran was president.
1919 Died on Feb. 7.
His works relating to parasitology deal with : parasitic worms, leeches (Hirudinea), protozoa, moulds, myiasis, injurious or disease transmitting insects, mosquitoes, acari, myriapods ; touch on various tropical diseases (malaria) ; he likewise ventured into the domain of anthropology ; wrote on medical history, education.
Collaborators : P. Bert, J. Binot, J. V. Carus, Ch. Claro, L. Dyé, G. Horvath, L. Maillard, E.-A. Martel, J. H. Pazos, P. Regnard, J. Richard, E. Schwartz.
Biographical reference tools :
- Blanchard (Raphaël), Titres et travaux scientifiques, 1908.
- Brumpt (Emile), "Professeur Raphaël Blanchard" in La Presse Médicale, 13/02/1910.
- Linossier (G.) "Raphaël Blanchard 1857-1919" in Paris Médicale, 15/02/1919.
- Nuttall (G.H.F.) "Raphaël Anatole Emile Blanchard 1857-1919" in Transactions of the Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, n° 4, 20/04/1919.
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