Gustave Martin (1872-1936)
French physician and biologist, born in 1872 at Pontivy (Morbihan, France).
1893-1897 Enrollment in medical training at the Navy's Health Services in Bordeaux.
1897 Served in the Colonial Health Corps and traveled to Indochina and Cambodia.
1903 Went on a training course in microbiology at the Pasteur Institute in Lille.
1904 Worked in F. Mesnil 's laboratory at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, where he commenced research on pathogenic protozoa and trypanosomiasis.
1905 (April) Assigned to duty in French Guinea, where he was responsible for the vaccine service ; vaccinated there some 20 000 persons, while continuing research on trypanosomiasis.
1906 Published Les trypanosomiases de la Guinée française (trypanosomiasis in French Guinea), after finishing his work in F. Mesnil's laboratory.
1906-1908 The French geographical society, directed by Le Myre de Vilers, assigned him the organization of the French mission for studying trypanosomiasis in French Congo ; A. Leboeuf, E. Roubaud, Weiss, Muny joined the team, as an associate physician, a biologist, an assistant biologist, and an ornithologist, respectively ; under the Institut Pasteur's scientific direction, the mission followed the medical and zoological instructions issued by the sub-committee of the international scientific association for overseas agronomy ( L. Bouvier, A. Laveran, A. Giard ) : geographical distribution and mode of spread of sleeping sickness ; diagnosis by microscopic examination, clinical study and treatment of human trypanosomiasis ; biological study of the tsetse fly (Glossina) ; in collaboration with G. Ringenbach, during the mission, he studied the psychiatric disorders caused by the disease.
1908 Became the first director of the new Pasteur Institute in Brazzaville : it was created with the French Geographical Society's support, which gave buildings, materials and funding secured from the trypanosomiasis mission.
1909 With A. Leboeuf and E. Roubaud, published a report on the French Congo mission entitled Rapport de la Mission d'études de la maladie du sommeil au Congo français, 1906-1908. Became a corresponding member of the French Society of Exotic Pathology (Société de Pathologie Exotique, SPE).
1912 Named professor in psychiatry, at the Graduate School of the Colonial Health Corps (Ecole d'application du service de santé des troupes coloniale) at the Pharo, in Marseille.
1914-1918 During First World War, served on the French war front, then assigned to duty as head of the Cameroon's Health Service, in 1916.
1919 As staying in tropical areas made him tired, he retired from his appointment of colonial physician. Taught as professor in hygiene at the Ecole Centrale, in Paris, and collaborated with M. Léger at the Prophylactic Institute directed by A. Vernes. Named expert on sleeping sickness, commissioned by the health committee of the League of Nations (LN).
1921 Published a report entitled L'existence au Cameroun ; études sociales ; études d'hygiène et de prophylaxie (Life in Cameroon ; studies in sociology, hygiene and disease prevention), with a foreword by A. Calmette.
1925 Along with E. Brumpt and F. Mesnil, participated in the international meeting on trypanosomiasis in London (organized by L. Rajchman, on behalf of the LN), as a member of the French delegation.
1926 Became a member of the board of the French Society of Exotic Pathology (Société de Pathologie Exotique, SPE).
1928 Took part in the international trypanosomiasis meeting in Paris. Elected vice president of the Société de Pathologie Exotique (SPE), while its president was E. Marchoux. Became a member of the advisory committee for leprosy, under the ministry of colonies. Gave lectures at the Institut des hautes études chinoises (Institute of Chinese studies).
1936 Died in Paris.
Collaborators : A. Leboeuf, E. Roubaud, G. Ringenbach.
Biographical reference tools :
- Roubaud (Emile), "Gustave Martin - Allocution de M. Roubaud, président de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 13 mai 1936", Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique, n° 29, 1936, p. 445-448.
- Martin (Gustave), Leboeuf (Alexandre), Roubaud (Emile), La maladie du sommeil au Congo français, Paris, Masson et Cie éd., 1909, 712 p.
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