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Biographical Sketch
Maurice Nicolle (1862-1932)
version française

@ French doctor and biologist, born in Rouen (Seine-Maritime, France) on March 1, 1862. His father, Eugène, was a doctor and teached natural history at Rouen. His mother was a clockmaker's daughter in Bayeux. He got two brothers: Charles (Ch. Nicolle), the younger who later became doctor and biologist, and Marcel, who turned towards arts.
1869-1879 Brilliant general studies at lycée Corneille in Rouen.
1879-1881 Started medical studies first at the general hospice then at the Hotel-Dieu in Rouen.
1882 Registered at the faculty of medicine of Paris and started his military service in the 22nd section of military nurse.
1884 Death of his father and failure at the internat.
1885 Successful candidate at the Internat des Hopitaux de Paris .
Friendship with another medical student, Léon Daudet, and became familiar with families Daudet and Goncourt.
1887 Left for Germany, in Würzburg, to make training with professor von Kölliker where he skilled up in anatomo-pathology.
1888 Published his first article with M. Letulle entitled: Le tissu élastique du coeur dans les scléroses cardiaques d'origine vasculaire .
1890 Defended his PhD thesis in Medicine : Contribution à l'étude des affections du myocarde : les grandes scléroses cardiaques .
1890 Attended the cours de microbiologie at the Institut Pasteur and decided to become a researcher.
1893 Interested in staining technics for micro organisms, together with V. Morax, he set up a staining method for microbial cilium, so-called Nicolle-Morax. He published two notes on the staining properties of ammoniated ruthenium oxychloride compound with J. Cantacuzène.
1893 While just named as technical assistant as a replacement for W. Hafkine for the microbiology course at the institute, Louis Pasteur sent him in Turkey at the request of sultan Abdul Hamid II.
11/1893-09/1901 Manager of the imperial Institute of Bacteriology of Constantinople (IBC), organized with the contribution of A. Chanternesse. From his arrival, he undertook an epidemiological and microbiological study on the cholera disease (published in 1896). He also conducted research on bacterial diseases (pneumonia in anatolian goats, pasteurellosis), viral diseases (Rinderpest, vaccine) and protozoan-caused diseases (bovin piroplasmosis, Aleppo boil). He also worked on improving methods for preparation of dyphteria toxin. Part of these works has been carried on by Adil Bey, one of his students. He was also in charge of teaching microbiology to Turkish doctors and veterinary surgeons.
1895 Married Valentine Rose during holydays in France.
1900 Published result of his teaching in Constantinople in Les élèments de microbiologie générale where he fully adopted E. Metchnikoff's opinions on phagocytosis and its role in immunity.
1901 Birth of his son Jacques in Rouen. Further to several altercations with French representatives and Turkish authorities, he resigned from the Bacteriological Institute of Constantinople and returned to the Institut Pasteur. P. Remlinger succeeded him at the head of IBC.
1902 In collaboration with P. Remlinger he published his Traité de Microbiologie Générale where he related the courses he gave in Constantinople on microbiological methods and pathogenic organisms.
1902-1926 His return to the Institut Pasteur attracted young researchers and students among which E. Cesar, J. Magrou and E. Pozerski. At that time, work dealt with: parallel study of diastasis (enzymes) and dyes; chemiotherapy (trypanosomiasis treatment with benzidine dyes); hypersensitivity and immunity following inoculations of glanders bacilli into guinea pigs; immunity (action of antibodies, antigens, toxins and antitoxins).
1910-1914 In replacement of J. Binot, became laboratory head of the microbiology course at the Institut Pasteur. R. Legroux became his assistant.
1914 Death of his wife.
1916 Acidental inoculation of Malte fever. Cured by L. Cotoni.
1918 Became associated member of the Société de biologie.
19/12/1920 Experienced a first paralysis attack on the right side of his body but still continued working.
1923 A. Calmette made an apartment available for him located rue de Vaugirard near the Hôpital Pasteur.
1926 In collaboration with Ch. Broquet, he published a corrected and improved second edition of Elèments de microbiologie générale et d'immunologie . Experienced a second attack which forced him to stop any scientific activity.
1932 Death in Paris.

Publications in collaboration with : G. Abt, Adil bey, E. Alilaire, P. Aubert, A. Berthelot, J. Cantacuzène, E. Césari, Debains, G. Durante, Fayet, P. Forgeot, Frasey, Frouin, Jouan, G. Loiseau, J. Magrou, F. Mesnil, V. Morax, H. Mouton, E. Nicolas, O. Noury bey, Ed. Pozerski, Quinquand, A. Raphaël, Refik bey, P. Remlinger, A. Robin, Ch. Truche, Zia bey.

Bibliography :
- Magrou (Joseph), L'oeuvre scientifique de Maurice Nicolle , Monographies de l'Institut Pasteur , Masson et Cie éd., 1934, 150 p.
- Nicolle (Jacques) : Maurice Nicolle (1862-1932), Un homme de la Renaissance à notre époque , éd du vieux colombier, Paris, 1957.

Service des Archives de l'Institut Pasteur